Timeline 2000-2001
Phase Two riots begin PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal Riots

Date: April 16-April 18, 2000

Location: Poso City

Actors: Muslims from Kayamanya, Protestants

Event: After a fight in which a Protestant youth stabbed and wounded a Muslim peer, residents of Kayamanya retaliated by attacking the offender's father and burning hundreds of homes in Protestant neighborhoods, forcing many to flee. 7 Protestants are killed and a further 38 are injured.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Police kill three Muslims in crowd PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Police action

Date: April 17, 2000

Location: Poso City

Actors: Police Chief Woerjantono, Brimob (Mobile Police Brigade), Muslim groups

Event: Woerjantono deploys the Brimob riot police to restore order, but which end up firing into a crowd and killing three Muslim protesters. The Brimob unit is removed, but 600 soldiers (TNI) are deployed.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Phase Two Riots continue PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal riots, violence

Date: April 17 - May 3, 2000

Location: Poso City

Actors: Muslim and Protestant rioters

Event: A Muslim is is found murdered in a Protestant neighborhood, inciting Muslim rioters into further home-and-church-burning. Muslim rioters start checking for I.D. Cards and target Protestants. Protestants and Muslims organize themselves into a "red group" and a "white group", respectively, wearing corresponding headbands to ease identification.

Source: Lorraine Aragon, Human Rights Watch

Phase Three Riots Begin PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal riots, violence

Date: June 23, 2000

Location: Kayamanya neighborhood, Poso City

Actors: Disputed

Event: Retributive attacks launched most likely by Protestant and Catholic "ninjas" fight with Muslims and police officers, killing three people, including a member of the police force. Further attacks are reported on Protestant neighborhoods. Police failed to stop the fighting.

Note: Some accuse Fabianus Tibo of being behind this incident, others point to A.L. Lateka. It is a highly disputed case.

Source: Lorraine Aragon, Human Rights Watch, Tempo

Phase Three riots spread outside Poso City PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal fighting, violence

Date: May 23 - June 7, 2000

Location: Throughout the Poso Regency

Actors: Protestant "Red" Group, but disputed. Many unknown actors.

Event: Attacks on Muslim neighborhoods and villages continue, killing hundreds of people. Special focus is on Muslims from South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Java, and Lombok. Most killed with sharp weapons or hung.

Note: It is still not known who was behind the violence during this stage, but there are many different suspects.

Sources: Lorraine Aragon


Fighting in Toyado village PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: May 26-27, 2000

Location: Toyado village

Actors: Unknown

Event: Fighting breaks out in Toyado village between Muslim and Protestant groups.

Source: Tempo

Massacre at Sintuwu Lemba PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: May 28,2000

Location: Sintuwu Lemba village (aka Kilo 9) -- nine kilometers outside Poso City.

Actors: Highly disputed

Event: An infamous massacre of villagers in the majority Javanese transmigrant Muslim cacao-growing village of Sintuwu Lemba, with dozens of civilians tortured and possibly hundreds killed. The men were brutally killed while hiding in an Islamic boarding school. The women were held captive and molested. Bodies were found in mass graves and in the river.

Note: This is the bloodiest single incident of the Poso conflict.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Lateka killed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence, communal fighting

Date: June 2, 2000

Location: Kayamanya neighborhood, Poso City

Actors: Muslim and Protestant groups

Event: In renewed fighting, Lateka is shot and killed. His body is later desecrated by Muslim rioters, further enflaming tensions.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Indonesian Military and Protestants clash PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: June 6, 2000

Location: Throughout Poso Regency

Actors: Indonesian Military (TNI) and Protestant militant groups

Event: 1,500 soldiers and tanks sent by Jakarta clash with red group fighters.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Mujahidin KOMPAK Arrives in Poso PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Organizational Activity

Date: Mid-June 2000

Actors: Mujahidin KOMPAK

Event: Mujahidin KOMPAK moves leadership personal into the Poso area and begins liaising with local Muslim fighters while helping to removes bodies and aid the Muslim population.

Source: ICG Report 2004.

Jemaah Islamiya sends ten trainers to Poso PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Organizational Activity

Date: June/July 2000

Location: Poso

Actors: Jemaah Islamiya

Event: JI sends ten trainers to the region to recruit and prepare local fighters. Almost all of them are alumni from the mujahidin training camps in Afghanistan. Contact is established with Adnan Arsal from the Tanah Runtuh neighborhood of Poso City.

Source: ICG Report 2004

Tibo is arrested PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Legal Action

Date: July 25, 2000

Location: Beteleme, Morowali district

Actors: Police, Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus Da Silva and Marinus Riwu

Event: Two weeks after 124 suspects are arrested for the violence in Poso, Tibo and his two accused accomplices are arrested as being the leader of Protestant militias during the third stage of violence, including the massacre and molestation of Muslims at Sintuwu Lemba.

Source: Lorraine Aragon, Human Rights Watch

First Peace Accord Signed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Government Action

Date: August 2000

Location: Central Sulawesi

Actors: The governors of North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and South Sulawesi

Event: The governors meet and sign a "peace accord".

Note: This peace accord was highly ineffective.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

President Wahid attends peace meeting PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Central Government Action

Date: August 22, 2000

Location: Poso

Actors: President Wahid (Gus Dur) and Poso leaders

Event: Wahid attends a peace meeting with leaders from the communities in Poso.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Sepe Village Attacked PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: December 23, 2000

Location: Sepe Village, outside Poso City

Actors: Laskar Mujahidin

Event: Recruits from Mujahidin KOMPAK attack Protestants in the village of Sepe.

Note: This attack is most likely recorded on a propaganda video filmed or edited by Seyam Reda (aka Abu Daud), a German/Egyptian who came to Poso in 2000.

Source: ICG Report 2004

Militants set up training camps in Pendolo PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Organizational Activity

Date: Late 2000-2001

Location: Pendolo, possibly elsewhere near Poso

Actors: Jemaah Islamiya, Mujahidin KOMPAK, Laskar Jundullah, foreign fighters, German/Egyptian filmmaker Seyam Reda

Event: JI, MK and LJ cooperate to train local recruits, Indonesian recruits and foreign mujahedin in remote jungles.

Source: ICG Report 2004


Communal violence flairs up PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal Violence

Date: January 2001

Location: Poso and southern environs

Actors: Pamona Protestants, Muslims

Event: Partially in response to the Tibo trial, violence again flares up in the same areas as past episodes.

Source: Lorraine Aragon

Trial and Conviction of Tibo, Riwu, and Da Silva PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Trial/Legal Proceedings

Date: December 2001-April 15, 2001

Location: Palu

Actors: Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus da Silva, Marinus Riwu, lawyers, government officials, witnesses, large crowds

Event: Tibo, Da Silva and Riwu are tried for their role in the Stage Three violence, convicted and sentenced to death. Huge protests go on outside the court room. One is smacked by a witness. Tibo names 16 collaborators.

Note: The 16 names mentioned were never investigated.

Source: Lorraine Aragon, HRW

Central Sulawesi Court upholds Tibo's sentence PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Legal Proceedings

Date: May 17, 2001

Location: Palu

Actors: High Court of Central Sulawesi, Tibo, Riwu, da Silva

Event: The High Court of Central Sulawesi backs up the sentencing of Tibo and his two accused accomplises.

Source: PADMA Indonesia

Clashes in Kasiguncu PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: May 21, 2001

Location: Kasiguncu village, Poso Pesisir subdistrict

Actors: Unknown

Event: Locals clash with sharp weapons, leaving two killed and five missing.

Source: Tempo

Truck burned and drivers killed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Attack, violence, burning

Date: June 10, 2001

Location: Poso

Actors: Unknown

Event: A car with electronic tools that contained large sums of money was attacked and burned. As result, Hendra and Ahmad are killed.

Source: Tempo

Two men shot to death PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Shooting

Date: June 27, 2001

Location: Pinedapa village, Poso Pesisir subdistrict

Actors: Unknown

Event: H. Anto (39) and Sudirman (35) are shot and killed by men dressed like ninjas.

Source: Tempo

Three shot and killed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Shooting

Date: June 27, 2001

Location: Maasani village, Saatu village, Tokorondo village, Pinedapa village, Poso Pesisir subdistrict

Actors: Unknown

Event: At least three shot and killed and several injured in communal clashes.

Source: Tempo

Six people disappear PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: June 28, 2001

Location: Watuawu village, south of Poso City

Actors: Unknown

Event: A vehicle traveling from South Sulawesi is stopped, and the six passengers disappear.

Source: HRW Report

Protestants and Muslims clash in Malei PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal Violence

Date: June 30, 2001

Location: Malei

Actors: Protestants from Tentena and Muslims from Ampana.

Event: The two groups, holding competing rallies, clash in Malei, causing numerous injuries and death, and severe property damage.

Source: HRW

Buyung Katedo killings PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal Violence

Date: July 3, 2001

Location: Buyung Katedo hamlet, Sayo, and Toyado villages

Actors: Unknown "Red Group" fighters, villagers

Event: Fighters attack three Muslim villages; in Buyung Katedo, 13 people are hacked to death, including the local imam. Most of the others killed are women and children.

Note: Mujahidin KOMPAK made a recruitment video of the incident that was distributed around Indonesia.

Source: HRW Report

Red Troops clash with police and army PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: July 5, 2001

Location: Toyado Village, south of Poso City

Actors: Red Troops, police, military (TNI), and displaced Muslims.

Event: After red troops (Protestants) attack barracks for displaced Muslims, security forces attack and kill six red troops.

Note: This event is disputed and is often cited for examples of military abuse and overreaction.

Source: HRW Report


Muslim Awad al-Amri appointed as new District Secretary PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Local Politics


Location: Poso

Actors: Poso's Regent, Awad al-Amri

Event: The bupati appoints Muslim Awad al-Amri as the new district secretary, raising opposition from Protestants in the district.

 Source: HRW Report

Laskar Jihad Arrives in Poso PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Organizational activity

Date: July 2001

Location: Poso

Actors: Laskar Jihad, local authorities

Event: Laskar Jihad, a well-trained, well-armed group of outsiders arrives in the Poso area. Based in Java, Laskar Jihad was set up to fight in the neighboring communal conflict in Ambon. Automatic weapons are introduced into Poso.

Note: The authorities welcomed Laskar Jihad to Poso. Although there was a spike in attacks on Protestant villages at this time, it is unclear if Laskar Jihad were the main actors behind this. Unlike the other militant Islamic groups in Poso, Laskar Jihad had a large public profile, ran a newsletter and website, and was nationalistic. There is strong evidence that they were trained by elements of the Indonesian military and supported by national politicians.

Source: HRW Report

Dean shot and killed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Shooting

Date: September 3, 2001

Location: Poso City

Actors: Unknown

Event: Rector of Sintuwu Maroso university is shot and killed. Laskar Jihad publishes newsletter praising the killing.

Source: Tempo, Berita Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad and Laskar Mujahidin Clash PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident type: Violence

Date: September 2001

Location: Kayamanya neighborhood, Poso City

Actors: Laskar Jihad, Jemaah Islamiya, Mujahidin KOMPAK, Laskar Jundullah

Event: A violent falling-out between Laskar Jihad and the other groups leads to a pitched battle.

Source: ICG Report 2004

Police and Islamic fighters clash in Mapane PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: October 20, 2001

Location: Mapane village, west of Poso City

Actors: Brimob (mobile police brigade/riot control) and "White Troops"

Event: Asked to reinforce Laskar Jihad fighters, white troops from Poso are detained by the Brimob police and allegedly tortured, with several killed.

Source: HRW

Muslims and Protestants clash PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Communal violence

Date: October 29-November 14, 2001

Location: Poso

Actors: Protestant groups, Muslim groups, Laskar Jihad.

Event: Skirmishes between the groups in multiple villages and neighborhoods left several people dead.

Source: HRW

Mapane Detainees Released PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Court Action

Date: December 10-December 19, 2001

Location: Palu

Actors: White Troops, government

Event: All of the detainees from Mapane (10/20/01) are released.

Source: HRW

Supreme Court rejects Tibo's appeal PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Legal Proceedings

Date: October 11, 2001

Location: Jakarta

Actors: Supreme Court, Tibo, Riwu, da Silva

Event: The Indonesian Supreme Court rejects the appeal for Tibo and his two convicted accomplices.

Source: PADMA Indonesia

Protestant Villages Razed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Violence

Date: November 28-December 1, 2001

Location: Betalemba, Patiwunga, Deuwa, Sanginora, Tangkura, Padalembara, Silanca, and Sepe villages.

Actors: Islamic militias, possibly Laskar Jihad, Mujahidin KOMPAK, unknown actors

Event: White troops, possibly led by Laskar Jihad, raze eight Protestant villages, killing between 9 and 15 people and cause upwards of 11,000 people to flee their homes. Mujahidin KOMPAK/Kayamanya is linked with the attack on Tangkura village.

Security Restoration Operation is launched PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Police/Military Action

Date: December 2001

Location: Poso region

Actors: Police and military (TNI)

Event: Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan (Security Restoration Operation) is launched, with reinforced security forces deployed to restore order.

Source: HRW

Military Abducts villagers PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Military action

Date: December 1, 2001

Location: Toyado village, south of Poso City

Actors: TNI Soldiers, villagers

Event: Angry over the deaths of colleagues in recent clashes, soldiers abducted seven Muslim villagers, 5 of whom were killed during detention.

Source: HRW

Malino Peace Accords Signed PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Peace Agreement

Date: December 19-20, 2001

Location: Malino, South Sulawesi

Actors: Jusuf Kalla, regional government officials, Christian and Muslim representatives, including Reverend Rinaldy Damanik and Ustad Adnan Arsal.

Event: Overseen by Jusuf Kalla, parties from the various communities around Poso agree to the Malino Declaration, a plan to end the violence and rebuild Poso. Jihadists affiliated with Mujahidin KOMPAK are unhappy with the agreement, however, as there is no plan to investigate the Protestant actors mentioned by Tibo in his trial.

Source: HRW, ICG Report 2004

Four Churches Bombed in Palu PDF  | Print |  Email

Incident Type: Bombing

Date: December 31, 2001

Location: Palu

Actors: A militant Muslim group, including one signatory of the Malino Agreement.

Event: Four Christian churches are bombed in Palu; it is unkown if this is linked to the Poso conflict.

Source: HRW